In the last blog we looked at the great horse poop debates of the late 1890s and how technology helped solve that problem (the growth of the internal combustion engine, but that inadvertently increased carbon emissions and pollution). The pollution is for most instances relatively invisible (except for the grey and brown smogs that occur as they build up) at the points of emission, and as such is easier to dismiss than the vast amounts of horse poop that once layered the streets deep in excrement. Now, imagine for a moment, that today, instead of hardly visible emissions, that for each gallon of fuel used, two-pounds of horse poop dropped out of your exhaust pipe – just like it used to do from the rear end of millions of horses. Now imagine a rush-hour drive with all that poop from all those cars, and then imagine the surface of the road being driven on. Fortunately, fossil fuel emissions do not look like horse poop – might be more effort to curb them if they did though! The health problems with fossil fuel pollution are much more severe than those of horse poop. Yes, the smell of horse poop and urine were quite overwhelming, but the health effects were minor by comparison to Pollution from Fossil fuels.
When we used to see the black smog’s from burning coal we could appreciate the health problems. On a bad day when we get modern brown smog’s (photochemical smog) where we cannot see the mountains from anywhere on the front range, we can appreciate the problem, but usually, we are unaware of the pollution. Without the constant reminder of the pollution (as in horse poop or daily lung choking smog’s) we do not recognize the harm that fossil fuel pollution is doing to our lungs and bodies.
When we hear the narratives about fossil fuel pollution the one single factor that is talked about is Carbon Dioxide. It’s all we hear and how it is connected to Global Climate Disruption, which is the focus of all our debates. Yet, the everyday discussion about the rest of the pollution, of which there are numerous factors, seems almost absent. The horse poop debate had only horse poop to think about, as distasteful as that was, but what other primary pollutants are there from the burning of Fossil fuels? The primary pollutants are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide (yes, there it is), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide and a variety of nitrogen oxides (NOx’s), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and a variety of particulates. When you throw all of that chemical mixture into the atmosphere and then expose it to water vapor, UV radiation, and electrical discharges you get another batch of secondary pollution (Brown photochemical smog – . These increase the toxic loading of the atmosphere with Troposheric (ground level) and near-earth Ozone (unlike the good Stratosphere Ozone between at 17-50 Km in stopping UVA and UVB), Nitrates, weak nitric and sulfuric acids (primary cause of acid precipitation), Peroxides, and Peroxyacyl nitrates. Wow, that is quite a list. And the bad news is that most of these are good lung and eye toxic irritants. Not enough to kill you immediately (acute pollution) like a bad Hollywood movie (although many chemically-sensitive people do die regularly when these pollutants are above basic levels), but slowly and insidiously (chronic) to impair everyone’s health over many years. That brown photochemical smog when you see isn’t just spoiling your view of the mountains, but also attacks the lining of your lungs, eyes, and throat, as well as absorbing into your body.
From the California Health Authorities:
Even healthy people can experience health impacts from polluted air including respiratory irritation or breathing difficulties during exercise or outdoor activities. Your actual risk of adverse effects depends on your current health status, the pollutant type and concentration, and the length of your exposure to the polluted air. High air pollution levels can cause immediate health problems including:
- Aggravated cardiovascular and respiratory illness
- Added stress to heart and lungs, which must work harder to supply the body with oxygen
- Damaged cells in the respiratory system
Long-term exposure to polluted air can have permanent health effects such as:
- Accelerated aging of the lungs
- Loss of lung capacity and decreased lung function
- Development of diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and possibly cancer
- Shortened life span
Those most susceptible to severe health problems from air pollution are:
- Individuals with heart disease, coronary artery disease or congestive heart failure
- Individuals with lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Pregnant women
- Outdoor workers
- Older adults and the elderly
- Children under age 14
- Athletes who exercise vigorously outdoors
People in these groups may experience health impacts at lower air pollution exposure levels, or their health effects may be of greater intensity.